ProjectsThe use of HSC (High Strength Concrete) from local materials using 10mm 3/8 and admixtures such as Micro silica, Auracast 200, Fly ash, is expected to increase as we move into the next century in both Nigeria and other corners of the World. The concrete which has a cubic compressive strength more than 24N/mm is known as High Strength Concrete (HSC) which differs from Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) in that its variable contains a high range of reducer ( or super plasticizer) while the normal strength concrete contains it rarely. In recent years there have been a rapid growth of interest in high...
ProjectsWater-in-oil emulsions are formed during production of crude oil, which is often accompanied by water. Under the production conditions, a proportion of this water is usually intimately dispersed throughout the crude oil as small droplets. In order to minimize the production problems related to crude oil emulsions and environmental concerns, petroleum operators need to prevent the formation of or breakdown these emulsions.
The emulsion stability results from the presence of interfacial barrier preventing coalescence of the dispersed water droplets. This is due to present of polar components suc...
ProjectsThe petrochemical industry is an industrial sector that is involved in the organic sector of the chemical industry, with downstream (manufacturing), fabrication or compounding activities, or with the petroleum refining industry.
The petrochemical industry also includes the treatment of hydrocarbon streams from the petroleum refining industry and natural gas liquids from the oil and gas production industry.
The petrochemical industry produces solvents and chemicals of various grades or specifications which are used to produce industrial organic chemicals, including benzene, the butylenes, creso...
Projectsthat co2 emission may also play a major role in global warming.
In recent times, there have been global environment concerns for the reduction of green house gas emissions from industrial sources, such as thermal plants, to alleviate the global warming problem. Generally, global warming results from the emission of methane, carbondioxide, nitrous oxide, chlorofluoro carbons (Daris and Cornwell 1991). Among these, co2 is considered to be the principal contributor to the problem, thus being the target of major reduction.
Projectswith the hot surface iron on the steel and forms a compound normally referred to as SCALE.
Chemically speaking, this scale can be made up of one or any or all of these separate compounds:
Ferrous Oxide - scale (black, scaly)
Ferric Oxide - rust (brown, powdery)
Ferrous-Ferric Oxide - magnetite (blue black, magnetic)
This scale, no matter what proportion of the three above compounds it contains, is generally a very hard, brittle coating, from between paper thick to 1/32” thick, adhering to the surface of the steel.
No ‘foreign’ material can be present when the steel is further processed such as...
ProjectsNatural water most times is not that simple water molecule (H20) often depicted in elementary chemical textbooks, but a complex mixture of many constituent with different concentrations. As water goes through its cycle and flows across the earth’s surface, it takes on minerals along with it, these minerals dissolve and contribute to the dissolved salts that are normally found in water. At the same time, organic matter from decomposed vegetation or from the soil with also dissolve and be saturated with dissolved oxygen, contain gases, like sulphur and nitrogen oxides etc, as such water contains...
ProjectsOver the past few years, management of education has been experiencing an increased interest in using internet and communication technology tools (ICT). While ICT has been widely used in distance and online mode of education, it is being increasingly used along with the face to-face lectures to augment and support classroom learning. The use of online discussion forum (ODF) or an integrated forum for teacher – student Interaction and Communication has emerged as a common tool and an effective way of engaging students outside the classroom. ODF is an e-learning platform that allows students to ...
Projectsin manufacturing methods, including minimal losses from scrap (since scrap pieces can be melted and recycled), and minimal finishing requirements. Injection moulding machine are usually different from metal die casting, in that molten metals can simply be poured, and plastic resins must be injected with force It is most common used method for mass production of plastic articles.
In pneumatically operated plastic injection machine two pneumatic cylinders are usually used: One for injection of plastic, and the other for automatic opening of the die. The finished product has a very high temperatu...
ProjectsOver the past few years, mandates and incentives for energy storage have increased dramatically. For example, in 2010 the California legislature passed Assembly Bill 2514 that resulted in the California Public Utilities Commission releasing a procurement target for 1.3 gigawatts (GW) of energy storage in the state by 2020 (Greentech,2013). Approximately 15% of this allotment has been planned for customer-sited, behind-the-meter storage (Berkeley, 2013). Customer-sited storage has been encouraged in California by the self-generation incentive program, which offers up to $1.62 per watt installed...
ProjectsA good thing happened when engineering came into existence to help solve most natural, societal and individual problems. Since crude oil was discovered, its usefulness has given a tremendous and phenomenal impact and contributions to the existence of mankind and his comfort.
Over the years crude oil has been the most used natural resources because its requirement brought about the refined products such as petrol, kerosene, diesel, and gas has made man’s engineering inventions to be affiliated to the sue of crude oil.
Inventions like generators, vehicles, stove, etc cannot function without the ...
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